Stem cells are the ‘basic cells’ of our bodies, which can develop and differentiate in any type of cell. These cells migrate to injured areas within the body and get transplanted and transform themselves into new tissue cells that replace the damaged ones. Stem cells have the capacity to multiply and renew themselves almost indefinitely. Stem cell can form nerve cells, muscle cells and blood cells which cannot multiply themselves and have limited life spans.
Stem cells are the foundation cells for every organ, tissue and cell of the body. Thus, first stem cells originate within the developing embryo. Stem cells from the bone marrow can develop into cardiac muscle, as well as liver, brain, nerve, fat and skin tissue. These cells are progenitor cells that lead to creation of new cells and are thus called as generative cells. Haematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and give rise to all the blood cell types.
Stem cell therapy is used to treat incurable diseases like Cerebral Palsy, Brain Hemorrhage and Stroke, Spinal Cord Injury & Paraplegia, Autism, Parkinsonism, Motor Neuron Disease, Muscular Dystrophy ,Liver Diseases, Huntington's Disease , Chronic Kidney Diseases ,Optic Neuritis , Multiple Sclerosis ,Cerebellar Ataxia and Friedrich Ataxia . Studies worldwide have shown encouraging results. The stem cell therapy done is from your own bone marrow and hence acceptability of the human body is more with no adverse effects
The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
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Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.